The Cooperativa Cafe Timor (CCT) works with very small farms in East Timor. The majority of land owners own less than a hectare of land. The CCT was established in 1994 with the help of the USDA and NCBA. and in 2001, the cooperative obtained Fair Trade certification. The farms are located in Maubesse, an area of high altitude and a sub-district in the Ainaro district; Atsabe, in the Ermera district; the Lequisa district; and the Aifu region. The coffee from East Timor was originally planted over 400 years ago by Portuguese colonists. However, after an epidemic of coffee leaf rust, the replanting of plants occured and led to the creation of a new coffee varietal of Hibrido de Timor.